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Notified Breeding Policy for Manipur

The Breeding Policy for Cattle and Buffaloes in the State of Manipur has been notified by the Secretariat of Veterinary & Animal Husbandry Department, Government of Manipur vide their No. 7/26/99-Vety.(Pt.), dated 21-4-2004.

State Breeding Policy 2004

( For Development of Cattle and Buffalo in Manipur)

1. Even though the up-gradation/crossbreeding programmes for cattle development in the State has been taken up for many years in the past, the State Government has not yet announced any breeding policy for cattle and buffalo so far. In the past out cattle breeding programme has been discriminate, oriented towards milk production, in the process the need for developing adequate bullock power for agriculture purposed has been overlooked. In the State, there is still persistent shortage of crossbred cattle; the demand for which has gone up substantially because of large expansion of beneficiary oriented programmes. As regards the buffalo, a lot yet needs to be done in the State for its development.

2. Topographically the State of Manipur may be broadly divided into two distinguished regions namely the valley and Hills. The valley is having a total geographically area of 2238 sq. km.( about 10% of total geographical area of the Sate) and is divided into four revenue districts namely Imphal East, Imphal West, Bishnupur and Thoubal districts. Whereas the hills cover a bulk area of 20089 sq. km. ( about 90% of total geographical area of the State) and is having five revune districts namely Chandel, Churachandpur, Ukhrul, Senapati and Tamenglong.

3. According to the report of 1997 Livestock Census, out of the total bovine population of 6.30 lakhs consisting of 5.08 lakhs cattle. 0.95 lakhs buffalo and 0.17 lakh mithun, the valley areas account about 50% of total bovine population consisting of 2.93 lakhs cattle and 0.17 lakh buffalo. Mainly nondescript animals (86.46%) and crossbred (13.54%) constitute the total cattle population of the State. The buffalo population is mainly distributed in the hill areas whereas the crossbreed cattle is distributed mainly in the valley districts due to the implementation of cattle crossbreeding programme concentrating in the valley area only.

4. Although the local cattle of Manipur belong to the nondescriptive type, they are of medium size, stout and hardy. The local bullocks have fame in Assam and other neighboring States for their skill and draught power. If genetic make up is done in terms of raising milk production and reproductive performance using an indigenous cattle breed, the local cattle can be transformed into a good economical dual purpose breed.

5. The State does not have any recognizable indigenous breed of buffalo. The local buffalo belong to the Swamp type. A study of the local buffalo breed for its desirable characteristics and economic trails in the State will be quite necessary.

6. The State of Manipur is not having any Frozen Bull Sperm Station till today and as such the requirement of the State is solely depending on other States. The State Animal Husbandry Department has so far established two Frozen Semen Banks with three Liquid Nitrogen Plants of 10 liters per hour production capacity each. Breeding services is provided through Artificial Insemination (A.I.) Centers numbering of 255 and conducting about 15 thousand A.I. in year. Cattle crossbreeding programme shall be expanded in the hill districts by opening 100 A.I. Centers and 2 Frozen Semen Depots. Apart from the above, The State department has also established one Cattle Breeding Farm and another one Buffalo Breeding Farm for production of desired bulls for use in breeding programmes.

7. Keeping all these foregoing considerations in view, it is to formulate a well established cattle and buffalo breeding policy balancing two fold objective of increasing milk production and development of draught power animal for the State of Manipur taking into account the conditions of different areas of the State. Already existing type of animals, preference of the farmers of the locality and already existing infrastructure facilities etc. the breeding policy to be adopted in the State of Manipur for development of Cattle and Buffalo shall be adhered to the following characteristics.

a. (i) In order to increase milk production, crossbreeding of local nondescript cattle shall be adopted using exotic cattle breeds. Jersey shall be the breed of choice of the State of Manipur.

a. (ii) In any case, the exotic blood inheritance shall be limited to 50% only for which the pure local cattle shall be mated with pure Jersey only and the outcome crossbred progeny shall be mated only with crossbred cattle having 50% Jersey inheritance.

a. (iii) Wherever particularly in the Imphal East and Imphal West districts, the progressive farmers are serious about raising the exotic blood levels, they shall be encouraged to do so but the maximum admissible level shall be curtailed not to exceed beyond 75% exotic inheritance. In their cases Holstein Friesian may be prescribed as the breed of their choices.

a. (iv) The farmers can switch over from one breed of exotic inheritance to another; i.e. from Jersey to Holstein Friesian or vice versa but in any case, the exotic blood level should not exceed the prescribed levels.

a. (v) Whereas the villages are used for taking up the progeny testing programme inter-se-mating of crossbred cattle shall be adopted.

b. (i) For production of draught power, up-gradation of local cattle shall be adopted through A.I. or Natural Service using the Haryana breed and concentrating such bullock power regeneration oriented breeding programme in certain areas of Moirang Sub-division of Bishnupur district, Kakching Sub-division of Thoubal district, Chakpikarong Sub- division of Chandel district and Henglep Sub- division of Churachandpur district.

b. (ii) In the process of up-gradation, the blood level of Haryana shall be restricted to 75% only and thereafter inter-se-mating of the up-graded animals shall follow.

c. As regards the Buffalo, the policy will be selective breeding within the local animals with the objective of improving them by developing desirable characteristics of draught ability and increased milk.

d. (i) In the department cattle Breeding Farm, the policy will be for production of crossbred bulls of 50% of 75% exotic blood inheritance of Jersey of Holstein Friesian which can be used for implementation of cattle crossbreeding programme in the State. Red Sindhi may be used as the indigenous component for production of crossbred bulls.

d. (ii) The policy for the department Buffalo Breeding Farm shall be for production of best bulls by selective breeding within the local buffalo, breed and by studying the breed for its economics traits.